Debut: February 2018



.: Ervin Torok's Mk.III Valentine II Tank - In PROGRESS


# 35096



Modelling Time:

Many hrs

PE/Resin Detail:

Metal barrel, Resin Ammo boxes


"Scratch-built interior,
Desert weathering with oils & enamel washes"

Valentine tank

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tank, Infantry, Valentine, Mk I–XI
Valentine II in Kubinka.jpg
Valentine II at Kubinka Tank Museum, Russia
Type Infantry tank
Place of origin United Kingdom
Service history
In service 1940–60
Used by British ArmyRed ArmyNew Zealand Army
Wars Second World War
Production history
Designer Vickers-Armstrongs
Designed 1938
Manufacturer Vickers-Armstrongs and others
Produced 1940–44
No. built 8,275 (6,855 built in UK and 1,420 in Canada)
Weight about 16 long tons (16–17 tonnes)
Length hull: 17 ft 9 in (5.41 m)
Width 8 ft 7.5 in (2.629 m)
Height 7 ft 5.5 in (2.273 m)
Crew Mk I,II, IV, VI–XI: 3 (Commander, gunner, driver)
Mk III, V: 4 (+ loader)

Armour 8–65 mm
Mk I–VII: QF 2-pounder (40 mm)
Mk VIII–X: QF 6-pounder (57 mm)
Mk XI: QF 75 mm
Mk IIICS QF 3-inch (76 mm)
Mk I–VII, X, XI: 7.92 mm BESA machine-gun with 3,150 rounds
Engine Mk I: AEC A189 9.6 litre petrol
Mk II, III, VI: AEC A190 diesel
Mk IV, V, VII–XI: GMC 6004 diesel
131–210 hp (97–157 kW)
Power/weight 12.4 hp (9.2 kW) / tonne
Transmission Meadows Type 22 (5 speed and reverse)
Suspension modified three-wheel Horstmann suspension "Slow Motion"
Fuel capacity 36 gallons internal
90 mi (140 km) on roads
Speed 15 mph (24 km/h) on roads
clutch and brake

The Tank, Infantry, Mk III, Valentine was an infantry tank produced in the United Kingdom during the Second World War. More than 8,000 of the type were produced in eleven marks, plus various specialised variants, accounting for approximately a quarter of wartime British tank production.[1] The many variants included riveted and welded construction, petrol and diesel engines and a progressive increase in armament. It was supplied in large numbers to the USSR and built under licence in Canada. Developed by Vickers, it proved to be both strong and reliable.[1]


There are several proposed explanations for the name Valentine. According to the most popular one, the design was presented to the War Office on St. Valentine's Day, 14 February 1940, although some sources say that the design was submitted on Valentine's Day 1938 or 10 February 1938.[1][2][3] White notes that "incidentally" Valentine was the middle name of Sir John V. Carden, the man who was responsible for many tank designs including that of the Valentine's predecessors, the A10 and A11.[4][note 1] Another version says that Valentine is an acronym for Vickers-Armstrong Ltd Elswick & (Newcastle-upon) Tyne. The "most prosaic" explanation according to David Fletcher is that it was just an in-house codeword of Vickers with no other significance.[5]


The Valentine started as a proposal based on Vickers' experience with the A9A10 specification cruiser tanks and the A11 (Infantry Tank Mk I).[6][page needed] As a private design by Vickers-Armstrongs, it did not receive a General Staff "A" designation; it was submitted to the War Office on 10 February 1938. The development team tried to match the lower weight of a cruiser tank, allowing the suspension and transmission parts of the A10 heavy cruiser to be used, with the greater armour of an infantry tank. Working to a specification for a 60 mm (2.4 in) armour basis[note 2] (the same as the A.11) but with a 2-pounder gun in a two-man turret (the A.11 was armed only with a heavy machine gun), a lower silhouette and as light as possible, resulted in a very compact vehicle with a cramped interior. Compared to the earlier Infantry Tank Mk II "Matilda", the Valentine had somewhat weaker armour and almost the same top speed. By using components already proven on the A9 and A10, the new design was easier to produce and much less expensive.

The War Office was initially deterred by the size of the turret, since they considered a turret crew of three necessary, to free the vehicle commander from direct involvement in operating the gun.[7] Concerned by the situation in Europe, it finally approved the design in April 1939 and placed the first order in July for deliveries in May 1940. At the start of the war, Vickers were instructed to give priority to the production of tanks.[8] The vehicle reached trials in May 1940, which coincided with the loss of much of the army's equipment in France, during Operation Dynamo, the evacuation from Dunkirk. The trials were successful and the vehicle was rushed into production as "Tank, Infantry, Mark III"; no pilot models were required as much of the mechanics had been proven on the A10 and it entered service from July 1941.


Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage and Wagon—an associate company of Vickers—and Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company (BRCW) were contracted to produce the Valentine. Metropolitan and the BRCW had built small numbers of the A10, their production runs were just finishing and they delivered their first Valentines in mid-1940. Metropolitan used two sites, with Wednesbury joined by their Midland site in production of the Valentine. Vickers output started at ten per month rising to 45 per month in a year and peaking at 20 per week in 1943, before production was slowed and then production of the Valentine and derivatives stopped in 1945.[6][page needed] Vickers-Armstrong produced 2,515 vehicles and Metropolitan 2,135, total UK production was 6,855 tanks.[6][page needed]

To develop its own tank forces, Canada had established tank production facilities. An order was placed in 1940 with Canadian Pacific and after modifications to the Valentine design to use local standards and materials, the production prototype was finished in 1941.[6][page needed] Canadian production was mainly at CPR Angus Shops in Montreal and 1,420 were produced in Canada of which most were sent to the Soviet-Union, with 2,394 exported from Britain. They formed the main Commonwealth export to the Soviet Union under lend-lease. The remaining 30 were retained for training. The use of local GMC Detroit Diesel engines in Canadian production was a success and the engine was adopted for British production. British and Canadian production totalled 8,275, making the Valentine the most produced British tank design of the war.[8]

Vehicle layout

The Valentine was of conventional layout, divided internally into three compartments; from front to back the driver's position, the fighting compartment with the turret and then the engine and transmission driving the tracks through rear sprockets. The driver's area contained only the driver and the driving controls. The driver sat on hull centre line, entering through either of two angled hatches over the seat, though there was an emergency exit hatch beneath his seat. The driver had a direct vision port—cut in what was one of the hull cross members—in front of him and two periscopes in the roof over his head. Driving was by clutch and brake steering through levers, whose control rods ran the length of the hull to the transmission at the rear.

Behind the driver was a bulkhead that formed another hull cross-member and separated him from the fighting compartment. The first tanks had a two-man turret, the gunner on the left of the gun and the commander acting also as the loader on the right. When three-man turrets were introduced, the commander sat to the rear of the turret. The turret was made up of a cast front and a cast rear riveted to the side plates which were of rolled steel. All tanks carried the radio in the turret rear. Early tanks used the Wireless set No. 11 with a tannoy for the crew; later tanks had Wireless Set No. 19, which included crew communications with long and short range networks.[9] Turret rotation was by electric motor controlled by the gunner, with a hand-wheel for manual backup. The restrictions that the two-man turret placed on the commander, made more so if they were a troop commander and responsible for directing the actions of two other tanks besides their own, were addressed by enlarging the turret for the Mark III so that a loader for the main armament could be carried. The turret ring diameter was not changed, so the extra space was found by moving the gun mounting forward in an extended front plate and increasing the bulge in the rear of the turret. This increased weight by half a ton on the 2.5 long tons (2.5 t) two-man turret.

A bulkhead separated the fighting compartment from the engine compartment. The engine, clutch and gearbox were bolted together to form a single unit. The first Valentines used a petrol engine and the diesel engine which distinguished the Mark II—at the time Tank Infantry Mark III*— from the Mark I, was based on the AEC Comet, a commercial road vehicle engine. The Mark IV used a GMC Detroit Diesel; these were the majority of those used in the desert campaigns. The gearbox was a 5-speed, 1-reverse Meadows; improved tracks were added to later marks.

Driver's position, both periscopes and hatch visible. Photo of Mark VI tank at CFB Borden
Crew inside a Valentine tank loading the 2-pounder gun


Thanks Wikipedia!

Box art:

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