Debut: May 2017



.: Ervin Torok's Diorama featuring a Stuart U.S. Light Tank M3 & Sd.Kfz. 222 Leichter Panzerspahwagen


#35042 & #35051



Modelling Time:

70+ hrs

PE/Resin Detail:



"Diorama Stuart & Sd.Kfz 222.

Scratch built fence, tree, base & leaves (punch set). Verlinden groceries. Jaguar German soldiers. Horse & rider are from Dragon 6588 Don Cossacks."

M3 Stuart

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Light Tank M3
Stuart m5a1 cfb borden.jpg
M5A1 on display at Base Borden Museum of the Canadian Forces
Type Light tank
Place of origin United States
Production history
Designer U.S. Army Ordnance Department
Manufacturer American Car and Foundry
Cadillac division of General Motors
General Motors
Produced 1941–1944
No. built 22,744 M3 and M5
Variants See Variants
Specifications (Light tank M5A1, late production [1])
Weight 33,500 lb (15.19 metric tons)
Length 15 ft 10.5 in (4.84 m) with sand shields and rear stowage box
Width 7 ft 6 in (2.23 m) with sand shields
Height 8 ft 5 in (2.56 m) over anti-aircraft machine gun
Crew 4 (Commander, gunner, driver, assistant driver)

Armor 0.375 to 2.5 in (9.5 to 63.5 mm)
37 mm Gun M6 in Mount M44
147 rounds
3 × .30 caliber (7.62 mm) Browning M1919A4 machine guns
6,750 rounds
Engine Twin Cadillac Series 42; 220 hp (164 kW) at 3,400 rpm
Power/weight 14.48 hp/metric ton
Transmission Hydramatic
4 speeds forward, 1 reverse
Suspension Vertical volute spring suspension (VVSS)
Fuel capacity 89 US gallons (340 liters)
100 mi (160 km)
Speed 36 mph (58 kph) on road

The M3 Stuart, formally Light Tank M3, is an American light tank of World War II. It was supplied to British and Commonwealth forces under lend-lease prior to the entry of the U.S. into the war. Thereafter, it was used by U.S. and Allied forces until the end of the war.

The British service name "General Stuart" (or just "Stuart") came from the American Civil War Confederate general J. E. B. Stuart and was used for both the M3 and the derivative M5 Light Tank. In British service, it also had the unofficial nickname of "Honey" after a tank driver remarked "She's a honey".[2] In US, use the tanks were officially known as "Light Tank M3" and "Light Tank M5".

Stuarts were the first American-crewed tanks in World War II to engage the enemy in tank versus tank combat.[3][4]


Observing events in Europe, American tank designers realized that the Light Tank M2 was becoming obsolete and set about improving it. The upgraded design, with thicker armor, modified suspension and new gun recoil system was called "Light Tank M3". Production of the vehicle started in March 1941 and continued until October 1943. Like its direct predecessor, the M2A4, the M3 was initially armed with a 37mm M5 gun and five .30-06 Browning M1919A4 machine guns: coaxial with the gun, on top of the turret in an M20 anti-aircraft mount, in a ball mount in right bow, and in the right and left hull sponsons. Later, the gun was replaced with the slightly longer M6, and the sponson machine guns were removed. For a light tank, the Stuart was fairly heavily armored. It had 38 mm of armor on the upper front hull, 44 mm on the lower front hull, 51 mm on the gun mantlet, 38 mm on the turret sides, 25 mm on the hull sides, and 25 mm on the hull rear.[5]

A M3A1 going through water obstacle, Ft. Knox, Ky.
A M3A1 going through water obstacle, Ft. Knox, Ky.

Internally, the radial engine was at the rear and the transmission at the front. The prop shaft connecting the two ran through the middle of the fighting compartment. The radial engine, having its crankshaft high off the hull bottom, contributed to the tank's high silhouette.[6] When a revolving turret floor was introduced in the M3 hybrid and M3A1, the crew had less room. In contrast to the M2A4, all M3/M5 series tanks had a trailing rear idler wheel for increased ground contact).

M5 Stuart

To relieve the demand for the radial aero-engines used in the M3, a new version was developed using twin Cadillac V-8 automobile engines and twin Hydra-Matic transmissions operating through a transfer case. This variation was quieter, cooler and roomier. Owing to its automatic transmission, it also simplified crew training. The new model (initially called M4 but redesignated M5 to avoid confusion with the M4 Sherman[7]) also featured a redesigned hull with sloped glacis plate and driver's hatches moved to the top. Although the main criticism from the units using it was that the Stuarts lacked firepower, the improved M5 series kept the same 37 mm gun. The M5 gradually replaced the M3 in production from 1942 and, after the M7 project proved unsatisfactory, was succeeded by the Light Tank M24 in 1944.

Combat history

Light Tank M5A1 passes through the wrecked streets of Coutances.
An Australian Stuart I during the final assault on Buna.
British M3 (Stuart I) knocked out during fighting in North Africa.
Republic of China army operating the M3A3 Stuart on Ledo Road


Thanks Wikipedia!


Leichter Panzerspähwagen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Leichter Panzerspähwagen
British soldiers inspect a captured SdKfz 222, North Africa, 1941
Type Armored car
Place of origin Nazi Germany
Service history
Used by Nazi GermanyChina
Wars World War IISecond Sino-Japanese War
Production history
Designer Eisenwerk Weserhütte
Manufacturer Auto UnionF. Schichau
Produced 1935 - 1944
Weight 4,000 kg
Length 4.8 m (15 ft 9 in)
Width 1.95 m (6 ft 5 in)
Height 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in)
Crew 3

Armor 5 - 14.5 mm
1 × Maschinengewehr 34 (for Sd.Kfz 221)
1 × 2 cm KwK 30 L/55 autocannon (for Sd.Kfz 222)
1 × Maschinengewehr 34 (for Sd.Kfz 222)
Engine Horch 3.8 V8 petrol
90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp)
Suspension 4x4
300 km (186 mi)
Speed road: 80 km (50 mi)
cross-country: 40 km (25 mi)
SdKfz. 222 in private collection.

The Leichter Panzerspähwagen (German: roughly "light armoured reconnaissance vehicle") was a series of light four-wheel drive armoured cars produced by Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1944.

Development history

Designed to meet operational requirements including reliability, run on a variety of grades of fuel, simple construction and good off-road performance the first such vehicle was the Sd Kfz 221 but this proved too small and too lightly armed, so in 1936-37 a heavier version was planned, using one of two standard chassis for four-wheel armoured cars, one with a front-mounted engine, the other rear-mounted version, was used in the Sd Kfz 222, which became the standard light armoured car in German army service until the defeat of Nazi Germany.[1]

The vehicles were developed by Eisenwerk Weserhütte of Bad Oeynhausen by using the chassis of the type Horch 108 standard heavy off-road car with an angled armoured body and turret.

Chassis were built by Horch (Auto Union) in Zwickau and assembled by F. Schichau of Elbing and Maschinenfabrik Niedersachsen in Hanover-Linden.

The rear-mounted petrol engine was originally a 3.5 Litre Horch V8 with 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) (Ausf. A chassis); from 1942, this was replaced by a 3.8 Litre with 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp) (Ausf. B chassis), giving it a road speed of 80 km/h (50 mph) and a cross-country speed of 40 km/h (25 mph). It had a maximum range of 300 km (186 mi).

Used by the reconnaissance battalions (Aufklärungs-Abteilung) of the Panzer divisions, the type performed well enough in countries with good road networks, like those in Western Europe. However, on the Eastern Front and North Africa, this class of vehicle was hampered by its relatively poor off-road performance.

Box art: Stuart

Click on each image for a closer look

The Sd Kfz 222 was fitted with heavier armament and larger turret than the Sd Kfz 221 but it was still comparatively cramped and lacked top protection other than a wire screen designed to allow grenades to roll off, but this made using the main armament problematic. Co-axially mounted with the machine gun both weapons were pintle-mounted, and fitted with an elevation and traverse mechanism and floor-mounted firing mechanisms. The turret was rotated by the traversing weapons rather than the weapons being fixed to a traversing turret. There was thus no bearing-ring and no turret basket, only a fighting compartment largely obstructed by the breaches of the weapons.

When the limitations of the vehicle were highlighted during the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 the Sd Kfz 222 was gradually replaced in the reconnaissance role by the Sdkfz 250 half-track, but the turret and armament of the Sd Kdz 222 was sometimes retained, despite its shortcomings (the Sd Kfz 250/9 variant was a Sdkfz 250 fitted with a top plate surmounted by the same turret used for the Sd Kfz 222 with the same pintle-mounted guns refitted to the half-track)[1] and captured Sd Kfz 222s were examined by Soviet designers before they created the similar BA-64 light armoured car.

Front and sides were made of 8 mm (0.3 in) RHA; thinner 5 mm (0.2 in) plates protected the top, rear, and bottom. Cast vision ports later replaced ports cut into the armour. The open-topped turret was fitted with wire mesh anti-grenade screens. Beginning in 1939, the front armour was increased to 14.5 mm (0.6 in). In 1942, the Ausf. B chassis was introduced; this had 30 mm of frontal armour, as well as a more powerful engine.


Sd. Kfz. 221

Base model and first production series of light armoured car built on a standardized chassis for military use. The Sdkfz. 221 was armed with a single 7.92 mm Maschinengewehr 13 machine gun (from 1938 a Maschinengewehr 34), manned by a two-man crew, and had 4-wheel drive. Production ran from 1935 to 1940 with at least 339 vehicles produced for the army. Some Sd. Kfz 221 were rearmed with a 2.8 cm sPzB 41 "heavy anti-tank rifle" in a modified turret. Its full name was Leichter Panzerspähwagen (M.G.). It was only produced with Ausf. A chassis and a maximum frontal armour of 14.5 mm.

Sd. Kfz. 222

This version of the vehicle was armed with a 2 cm KwK 30 L/55 autocannon and a 7.92 mm MG 13 machine gun. The crew was increased to three by the addition of a gunner, relieving the commander of that task. In 1938, the MG 13 was replaced by a Maschinengewehr 34, in 1942 the KwK 30 was replaced by the faster firing KwK 38 of the same calibre. Production ran from 1937 to late 1943, with at least 990 vehicles being produced for the army. Its full name was Leichter Panzerspähwagen (2 cm).


Thanks Wikipedia!

Box art: Panzerspahwagen

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